Carpathians were formed together with the entire Alpine system, the vast geosyncline of the Russian platform (the east), orogenetic caledono Hercynic (west) and African shield (the south). Since the Cretaceous, the formation of the Carpathians took place in several phases of uplifting movements, belonging orogenezei Alpine.
Gained relief appearance during the Quaternary current, growing on a mosaic of rocks (crystalline schists, volcanic rocks, magmatic and sedimentary rocks).
As in the Alps, Apennines and Scandinavian Mountains, the Carpathians, there are many areas with limestone and karst landforms, glacial relict landforms, structural and petrographic varied landscape.
The largest division is the Tatra Mountains.
Much of the Western Carpathians External western and northern Poland, Ukraine and Slovakia are traditionally appointed Beskids.
Geological boundary between the Western and the Eastern Carpathians, browse around the line (from south to north) between the towns Michalovce Bardejov Nowy Sacz Tarnów. The old paper was more to the east boundary line (from north to south) drawn from rivers and Osława Sanna (Poland) - Snina city (Slovakia) - Tur \ 'ia (Ukraine). Biologists, however, and moved east border.
Boundary between Eastern and Southern Carpathians is formed by Step Predeal, Brasov and Prahova Valley South.
Ukrainians use the term "Eastern Carpathians" only the Ukrainian Carpathians (or Wooded Carpathians), mainly in the area in their territory (until Prislop Pass), while the Romans used the term Eastern Carpathians (Eastern Carpathians) to refer the area extending from the border with Ukraine to the south.
In terms of climate, the Carpathians are part of the continental climate, with different shades because of their latitude, longitude and altitude.
One may speak of a mountain climate, characterized by altitudinal ratios, resulting in a decrease in temperature and precipitation increase as the altitude increases. Average annual temperature varies between 8 ° C in the foothills and 2 ° C on the highest peaks. Average annual rainfall varies between 750 mm and 2000 mm. At altitudes above 2000 m, rainfall is in most cases, the form of snow.
In the northern Baltic climate influences are felt in the western ocean, the climate influences from eastern Russian Plain (cold and dry winter), and the south Mediterranean.
The waters are very numerous. Major rivers and springs in the Carpathians are: Nitra, Hron, Tisza (with its aflienţii Bodo Somes, Cris and Mures), Jiu, Olt, Arges, Siret (with its tributaries of Moldova, Bistrita, Trotus, Putna, Ramnicu Salt and Buzau), Prut and Nistru.
The highest summits (particularly in north western Carpathians and the south eastern Carpathians), there are many glacial lakes. In addition to these lakes man, in most cases the lakes used for energy purposes.
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