The most important feature of the Black Sea is the existence of two overlapping layers of water:
- one surface of approximately 150 m deep, with a moderate concentration of salt;
- one of depth, which descends to the seabed, this layer is characterized by a high concentration of minerals.
* Coastal zone (which coincides with the continental platform), which descends to 180 m (it occupies one third of the sea surface);
* Pelagic zone, which contains masses of water in open sea;
* Abyssal zone, including deep sea (up to a maximum depth of 2245 m).
In each of these different creatures living areas.
· CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOTOPE
* Water temperature varies seasonally (winter ashore, minimum down to 0 degrees C in summer reaches 27-29 degrees C); between winter and summer, vertical, there is a reversal of the seasons up to 75-100 m depth; the seabed, the temperature is around 7-9 degrees C;
* Light penetrates to 200 m deep; intensity decreases inversely with depth;
* Salinity is low, especially in the mouth of the Danube and beds built in deep water;
* Oxygenation of the water varies according to season and water depth: winter, bedding surface are saturated in oxygen, in 150-200 m, the oxygen is entirely absent, as solvit gas especially hydrogen sulphide;
* Record horizontal movement of water currents (parallel to shore and some others inside), vertical (thick water that winds of 180-200 m) and waves caused by wind (4-5 m height during storms).
· COMPONENTS BIOCENOSIS
* uni and multicellular plants; green algae are the surface and the brown and red to deep, long fixed substrate; strong waves often throw them on shore;
* animals: some are fixed by aquatic plants (worms, mollusks) or are buried in the substrate (turbot, flounder) or water table (jellyfish, guvizi, mackerels, large stall etc.). Many gulls flying over water.
AREA PELAGIA is characterized by a rich phytoplankton and zooplankton;
* Plants: Most are green algae;
* Pets: some are moved by sea currents (protozoa, crustaceans, jellyfish) and other active travel (horse mackerel, mackerels, anchovy); there are few mammals (dolphins and one species of seal).
AREA ABIS is devoid of life, are present only some sulfur bacteria or role in decomposition of organic matter resulting from dead bodies. In other large animals there and curious-looking abysmal light organ. They are adapted to high pressure from below, having passed through the pores or canicuri body, which balances the internal pressure of the external body (an abysmal over land suddenly snapped out immediately). The animal study from the Danube and Black Sea were occupied many biologists. Of them are famous Grigore Antipa Ion Borcea.
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